Physiological processes in growth and development, reproduction, lactation, and egg laying. Key concepts in thermal balances in farm animals. Natural and acquired immunity. Role of specific and non-specific immunity. Thermal exchanges in farm animals. Genetic and physiological adaptation to the environment. Livestock and climate change: impacts on overall productivity (e.g. heat overload). Reproductive technologies (e.g., artificial insemination).
Digestive physiology and metabolism of end products of digestion. Factors regulating feed intake. Feed evaluation. Feeding standards and their applications. Feed formulation: manual and computerised procedures. Legislative framework for feed manufacture.
Basic principles of qualitative and quantitative genetics. Traits of economic importance in animal production. Elements and purpose of animal genetic improvement programme. Aids to selection. Characteristics of selection methods and genetic responses. Concepts of correlated selection response. Crossbreeding system and heterosis